The 32-year-old has arrived back at the club two years after departing for Bristol City in the Championship.
Rowe made 144 appearances for Rovers after joining the club in 2016, initially on loan. His final game for the club was the play-off semi-final defeat to Charlton Athletic in 2019.
The versatile player was among Rovers’ top targets for the summer and showed an interest in making his return to the club soon after Richie Wellens’ appointment as Rovers manager.
Rowe largely operated as a left back during his time at Ashton Gate – which saw him make 60 appearances in the Championship - and Wellens sees him mainly playing in that position, despite previously playing as a midfielder for Rovers.
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His arrival completes Wellens’ initial renewal of Rovers’ defence, following the signings of right back Kyle Knoyle and centre half Ro-Shaun Williams.