It announced the industrial action after talks broke down over a pay, with the union wanting wages to keep pace with the rising cost of living.
The move comes a day after the RMT union, which represents rail workers such as guards and signalling staff, said it would strike on 27 July.
RMT workers walked out for three days in June in a row over pay and jobs.
Mick Whelan, general secretary of Aslef, which represents train drivers, said its members "don't want go on strike" but train companies had offered "nothing" and claimed the union had been "forced into this position by the train companies, driven by the Tory government".
"We don't want to inconvenience passengers - not least because our friends and families use public transport, too, and we believe in building trust in the railways in Britain - and we don't want to lose money by going on strike," he said.
Mr Whelan said the union was open to further talks for a "fair and sensible offer".
Train drivers at the following companies are set to strike:
Arriva Rail London
West Midlands Trains
The Department for Transport has previously urged the union to reconsider strike action, saying train drivers earn on average about £60,000 per year - more than twice the UK median salary.
"It is very disappointing that, rather than commit to serious dialogue with the industry, Aslef are first seeking to cause further misery to passengers by joining others in disrupting the rail network," it said.
The date coincides with the Commonwealth Games in Birmingham and also the first day of the English Football League season, with clubs from the Championship and below playing matches across the country.
The action could have a knock-on effect on Sunday services.
Aslef has already held strike days on Greater Anglia and another is scheduled for 23 July. Hull Trains drivers are due to strike on 16 and 23 July.
It is the first time the union has co-ordinated action by this number of operators on the same day.