The blaze is understood to ripped through the premises of JBM Recycling, with residents told to stay away from the scene and to keep doors and windows closed as toxic smoke drifts across the area.
A South Yorkshire Police spokesman said: “Our officers are currently assisting South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue with traffic management while they tackle a fire at a premises on White Lea Road, Swinton.
“Please avoid if possible. And it is advised local residents keep doors and windows closed until the fire is out due to toxic smoke in the air.
“Currently, the whole of White Lea Road from the junction with Wath Road in Mexborough to Rowms Lane in Swinton is closed, as is Marriott Road in Swinton.
A spokesman for South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue said: “We currently have five fire engines in attendance at a large industrial fire on White Lea Road, Mexborough.
“If you live nearby, please ensure that you close all windows and doors as there is a large amount of smoke in the area.”
The site of the fire is near to Swinton railway station and the main Doncaster to Sheffield railway line but services are not thought to have been affected at this stage.