The 37-year-old was injured when two men entered a property on West End Avenue, Bentley, and a gun was fired.
The woman suffered injuries to her back but they are not believed to be life-threatening.
A police probe into the incident has been launched.
Detectives are treating it as a targeted attack.
South Yorkshire Police said: “Officers were called to reports of a firearms discharge on West End Avenue in Bentley, Doncaster, around 10.17pm last night.
“It is believed two men entered the property and discharged a firearm.
“A 37-year-old woman suffered injuries to her back and was taken to hospital. Her injuries are not believed to be life-threatening.
“This is believed to be a targeted attack.”
Anyone with information on the incident should call South Yorkshire Police on 101 and quote incident number 946 of January 21.
Crimestoppers can be called on 0800 555111.