It is believed up to 20 people from different parts of the country were hospitalised during an event in High Melton on Saturday at about 7pm.
In a statement, South Yorkshire Police said: "An investigation is underway after a group of people fell ill as a result of eating something reportedly containing cannabis.
"The group, of both men and women, were taken to hospital at about 7pm on Saturday 24 August. All have since been discharged."
The force added a 48-year-old woman from County Durham has been arrested in connection with the incident and currently remains in police custody today where she will be spoken to by detectives.
The nature of the event has not been revealed yet by police.
Pictures emerged on social media showing ambulances at the scene.
Anyone with information is asked to call police on 101 quoting incident 835 of 24 August 2019.