Speaking on the BBC he said: "We shouldn't be doing things for the sake of it."
He said the government had looked at the evidence, adding: "I'm pleased to say we will not be going ahead."
It was thought the plan, which came under criticism from venues and some MPs, would be introduced at the end of this month.
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Under the scheme, members of the public would have been required to show proof they have had two doses of a Covid-19 vaccine in order to gain entry to clubs and other crowded events.
The Night Time Industries Association said the plans could have crippled the industry and seen nightclubs facing discrimination cases.
There was also opposition from Tory MPs on the Covid Recovery Group and the Liberal Democrats, whose leader Ed Davey, described them as "divisive, unworkable and expensive".
Speaking on The Andrew Marr Show, Mr Javid said: "I've never liked the idea of saying to people you must show your papers or something to do what is just an everyday activity, but we were right to properly look at it.
"We've looked at it properly and, whilst we should keep it in reserve as a potential option, I'm pleased to say that we will not be going ahead with plans for vaccine passports."
Scotland is taking a different approach to England - they will bring in a vaccine passport for over-18s for entry to nightclubs and many large events from October.