Primary school children in the UK have been banned from heading balls during football training.
The ban has been introduced with immediate effect in England, Northern Ireland and Scotland.
Why has the ban been introduced?
The three football associations issued a statement on Monday morning (24 Feb) confirming changes to their heading guidances.
The new guidance comes in the wake of a study which suggested a link between football and dementia. The FIELD study showed that former footballers were three and a half times more likely to die of neurodegenerative disease than age-matched members of the general population.
As a result, there will now be no heading at all in the so-called ‘foundation phase’ - primary school children - and a graduated approach to heading in training in under-12s to under-16s football.
However, the ban will only be introduced to football training and won’t apply for match play, as it takes into consideration the extremely limited number of headers which actually occur in youth games.
The FIELD study did not state that heading a ball was the actual cause of the increased prevalence of neurodegenerative conditions among footballers, but the decision to update the guidelines has been taken to "mitigate against any potential risks", the FA said in a statement.
FA chief executive Mark Bullingham said, "This updated heading guidance is an evolution of our current guidelines and will help coaches and teachers to reduce and remove repetitive and unnecessary heading from youth football.
"Our research has shown that heading is rare in youth football matches, so this guidance is a responsible development to our grassroots coaching without impacting the enjoyment that children of all ages take from playing the game."
Europe-wide guidance to follow?
The associations said the guidance had been produced in parallel with UEFA's medical committee, which is seeking to produce Europe-wide guidance later this year.
Irish FA chief executive Patrick Nelson said, "Our football committee has reviewed and approved the new guidelines.
"As an association we believe this is the right direction of travel and are confident it will be good for the game, and those who play it."
Scottish FA chief executive Ian Maxwell, added, "While it is important to re-emphasise there is no research to suggest that heading in younger age groups was a contributory factor in the findings of the FIELD study into professional footballers, nevertheless Scottish football has a duty of care to young people, their parents and those responsible for their well-being throughout youth football.
"The updated guidelines are designed to help coaches remove repetitive and unnecessary heading from youth football in the earliest years, with a phased introduction at an age group considered most appropriate by our medical experts.
"It is important to reassure that heading is rare in youth football matches, but we are clear that the guidelines should mitigate any potential risks."