The 26-year-old midfielder was involved in a collision with Chelsea defender Gary Cahill in January 2017 while playing for Hull City and the incident has kept him out of action ever since.
Mason, who has one England cap, said in a statement: "I can confirm that following specialist medical advice I am having to retire from playing professional football.
"I have worked tirelessly in order to be able to return to the pitch. Unfortunately, having taken expert medical advice, I now have no option but to retire due to the risks involved given the nature of my injury."
Mason, who started his career with Tottenham, had loan spells with Yeovil, Doncaster, Millwall and Swindon before joining Hull in 2016.
He won his sole England cap against Italy in March 2015.
Mason was a popular player in making 20 appearances over two spells with Rovers in the 2010/11 and 11/12 seasons, scoring once.