A 27-year-old man died after a black Vauxhall Vectra hit a garden wall and street light on Bawtry Road, in Bessacarr atÂ around 10.20pm on Sunday.
Emergency services found a 27-year-old man critically injured inside the car.
He was taken to hospital but later died from his injuries.
South Yorkshire Police have now launched an investigation into the incident.
In a statement, the force said: 'The other occupants of the vehicle are understood to have fled the scene.
'Initial enquiries yesterday evening suggest that the Vectra had been in the Acacia Road area of Doncaster prior to the collision.
'A 47-year-old man has been arrested on suspicion of causing death by dangerous driving and remains in police custody today.
'Police also believe a white Ford Transit van was travelling in the area yesterday evening and would like to hear from anyone who may have seen what happened, or anyone who may have seen the Vectra prior to the collision.'
Anyone with any information should call police on 101, quoting incident number 854 of December 23.